|TERRACED AND FORTIFIED OLIVE GROVES
Definition characters description and diffusion
Vineyards were grown in deserts using terraced farming techniques and were fed by water created from stone enclosures.
General characters description and diffusion
This practice of producing water by condensation systems based on mounds of stones was used in the Negev desert where, according to modern Israeli research, very ancient remnants of olive trees and vineyards were irrigated by means of dry stonewalls harvesting dew. In arabic those devices are called teleylat al-anab (Arabic plural of tell which stands for heaps of stones, hillock and al-anab, which stands for vineyards.) Plants grew within small enclosures whose stones were purposely arranged with large interstices to catch the wind full of moisture. Thus, the vineyard and the olive tree did not need springs or groundwater tables in order to grow and the sweet raisin juice, that in ancient times was often referred to as honey, could be tasted as well as oil, thanks to the activity of solid rocks (Keller, 1955).
Advantages and sustainability
Dry stonewalls were used to irrigate olive groves through the ways in which they captured moisture and conveyed it to the soil, protecting the plants from heat and winds.