||HYPOGEA AND HANGING GARDENS
Definition characters description and diffusion
At the end of the Neolithic Age, great innovations in the way of life and in agriculture had already been introduced. In the following period, metal-working techniques were disseminated as well as mobility and the ability to organise the environment increased: the experience in mining and the new metal tools facilitated the hypogeal practices.
General characters description and diffusion
In the development of the Sassi of Matera the troglodyte habitat and the hydroagricultural matrix of cultivated terraces dictated the architectural shapes and the urban layout. The original layout consisted of caves with an arch formation arranged around a threshing-floor garden, with the water reserves replenished from the plain above, and drained below by the excavated rock or condensed by capturing humidity in the caves. With the building of the barrel vaulted chambers in front of the caves the plain above became a hanging garden. The water was collected on the roofs, whose sloping sides were set into the walls for this purpose, and it was conveyed into the cistern well in the courtyard.
Advantages and sustainability
Underground rooms and gardens respectively guarantee food storage in protected areas with a constant temperature and in open spaces for working and drying in the sun foods. Practices are systems to be re-proposed for traditional and biological high-rate typical niche goods.