|COMBINATED USE FOR CATCHMENT, DISTILLATION AND CONDENSATION
Definition characters description and diffusion
In deserts and arid zones, knowledge of water management techniques is used to preserve soil humidity and to collect underground water.
General characters description and diffusion
Since evaporation is considerable, any water stored above ground would be quickly lost. So the properties that sediments have of creating a barrier against high temperatures are exploited, safeguarding the floodwater or occult precipitation reserves and the capacity of the hypogea to absorb and condense capillary humidity. A series of devices have been created on the basis of these principles, from the underground barrier technique to the creation of oases by organizing depressions protected by artificial dunes or based on drainage tunnels (foggara, qanat, kariiz). The phenomenon of hidden precipitations is of primary importance in the ecology of the desert. Hidden precipitations allow gazelles to drink by licking the dew off stones which are steeped in moisture, lizards and beetles get the water ration they need to survive from the water contained in the air. Because of the temperature range from night to day that can exceed 60 degrees, there is a lot of night condensation on the ground that wet the sand. This wet sand is dried by the sun's rays and creates a hard crust which typically cracks when trod upon. If the hidden precipitations are properly managed, then they can form sizeable water reserves.
Advantages and sustainability
The combined methods for water catchment offer a higher water collection yeild as well as utilize methods that help to protect the water that has been collecte by the various systems.